|The central theme of Carmichael’s book is the problem of the clash between modernization and tradition in the Balkans. While admitting that ethnically inspired violence indeed is integral element of European culture, the author maintains that the fragmentation of the Ottoman governance in the Balkans in the course of the 19th and 20th century did create specific context. The spreading of exclusive nationalism is examined through hermeneutical analysis of the texts ranging from the 19th century up until the end of the 20th century. The premodern tradition existent in the Ottoman Empire was destroyed or profoundly altered. Against such background, the author investigates into different traditions phenomena (bandits and paramilitaries, ch.2), local reception and mutation of fascism and communism (ch.3), the cult of the death of the hero (ch.4), and analyses their impact on the destruction of community (ch.6) and ethno-psychological consequences (ch.7). The overall conclusion is that ethic violence was brought about by Europeanization of the Balkans and the local reception of European ideologies such as nationalism, fascism and communist, which were blended with the traditional elements of Balkan societies. Its empirical backing is however strongly present only in the Yugoslav example.