|This chapter from a collected volume on church-state relationship in Eastern europe briefly describes communist religious policies and the position of religious communities, i.e. Serbian Orthodox Church, Catholic Church and the Muslim community in Socialist Yugoslavia. Ramet’s theoretical stand-point is rather simple here, he takes for granted the fact that religion has always been “constitutive element in the group identity and nationalism of the most nationality groups” (299). Although the main focus of the chapter is on the post 1945 state policies towards major religious groups in the country, the author provides a comprehensive overview of historical ties between religion and nationalism; the cases analyzed are those of Serbia, Croatia and the Yugoslav Muslim Community. The most interesting part of this study is, perhaps, a sensitive discussion of the contradictions between officially declared by the LCY equal treatment of all religions and nationalities and the real outcome of state policies which encouraged stronger connection between confession and nationality in some cases, e.g. Macedonia, and discouraged in others, e.g. Croatia.