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Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-century Europe..

Vardy, Stephen, T. Hunt Tooley, Agnes Huszar Vardy (ed.)

The volume is a product of the conference on Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe held at Duquesne in 2000. The Conference revolved around the topics of definition, origins, consequences and processes of ethnic cleansing, defined as the “part of human history ever since the classical times”.

Ethnic Cleansing in the Balkans. Nationalism and the destruction ..

Carmichael, Cathie

The central theme of Carmichael’s book is the problem of the clash between modernization and tradition in the Balkans. While admitting that ethnically inspired violence indeed is integral element of European culture, the author maintains that the fragmentation of the Ottoman governance in the Balkans in the course of the 19th and 20th century did create specific context.

Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-century Europe..

Norman M. Naimark

Norman Naimark is utilizing on the concept of ethnic cleansing as being wide enough to tackle both forced deportations and genocide, and is attempting to show that although similar violent actions could be traced to the dawn of mankind, the twentieth century is presenting a qualitatively different novel venture of state-sponsored violence targeting specific ethnic groups, which he contributes to the rise of modern racialist nationalism. He analyses in depth several cases: Armenian genocide in 1915 and consequent expulsion of Greeks and Armenians from Turkey, Nazi attack on Jews, Soviet deportations of Chechens of Caucasus and Crimean Tatars in 1944, the expulsion of Germans from Eastern Europe and ethnic cleansings in the course of wars in former Yugoslavia.

Ethnic Cleansing..

Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew

Bell-Fialkoff’s book is expanding the thesis from his 1993 article “A brief history of ethnic cleansing”, published in Foreign Affaris. Bell-Fialkoff has reconceptualised the term ethnic cleansing, drawing it out of the exclusive context of wars in former Yugoslavia, in a way which has enraged the most of the scholarly community.

Genocide in Bosnia. The Policy of „Ethnic Cleansing“..

Cigar, Norman

Norman Cigars monograph is one of the first lengthy contributions to the topic of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By equating the practice of ethnic cleansing with genocide, he is discarding the notion that ethnic cleansing is a byproduct of an ethnic conflict.

“Ethnic cleansing – an Attempt at Methodology”..

Petrovic, Drazen

This article is an early attempt to theorize the term ethnic cleansing. The author is analyzing the legal, political and discursive usage of the term in an attempt to disentangle them.

A Witness to Genocide: the First inside Account of the Horrors of..

Gutman, Roy

The collection of essays assembled in this book brought the author the Pulitzer Prize. Essays are covering the events in Bosnia and Herzegovina from December 1991 until June 1993.

Understanding Ethnic Violence. Fear, Hatred and Resentment in Twe..

Petersen, Roger D.

By stating that “emotion is an essential part of human nature and has something to do with ethnic violence and conflict (xi) this study is applying an emotion-based approach to ethnic conflicts. In a sharp collision with postemotionalism thesis, first part of the book (chapters 2-4) is mapping out the emotion-based approach through the study of fear, hate, resentment and rage and their impact in forming the narratives of the ethnic communities.

Genocide after Emotion. The Postemotional Balkan war..

Meštrović Stjepan (ed.)

Inspired by the lack of an adequate response to the collapse of Yugoslavia by international community, contributors to the Mestrovic volume gathered their insights under the umbrella-term of ‘postemotionalism’, defined by Mestrovic as a “manipulation of emotionally charged collective representations of ‘reality’ on the part of the culture industry” (11). In his view, media refocusing of public sentiments in the direction of the (invented) past instead of the relevant present reopened the possibility of unstopped aggression in the Balkans in the disguise of historically inevitable emanation of ethnic violence.

New and Old Wars - Organized Violence in a Globalized era..

Kaldor, Mary

Mary Kaldor’s book is an attempt to analyze the nature of post-Cold war conflicts. Using the examples from Yugoslav wars, Iraq, Nagorno-Karabah and Afghanistan, Kaldor is extracting common features which sharply differentiate those conflicts from the traditional conception of war, as rooted in writings of Klausewitz and further theoretized ever since.

War in European History..

Howard, Michael

Short, standard book of Michael Howard provides an overview of the dynamics and techniques of warfare in Europe from the Middle Age to the nuclear era. The author is maintaining that the political notion of Europe was coined, fought for, contested and defended through war as a form of organized and legitimized violence.

The Balkan Wars 1912-1913. Prelude to the First World War..

Hall, Richard C.

A concise monographic study of the First and the Second Balkan War. The author provides a factual account of the origins of war.

The Myth of “Ethnic Conflict”, Politics, Economics, and “Cu..

Crawford, Beverely, Lipschutz, Ronnie D. (ed.)

Contributions of the volume, conducted by the study group of University of Berkeley and Santa Cruz, are examining the causes of sectarian and ethnic conflicts. The authors are advancing a monocausal explanation of the growth of ethnic and sectarian violence, which they perceive as a consequence of the triumph of economic globalization and the victory of “world-shrinking” ideologies.

“New Perspectives on Nationalism and War”..

Comaroff, John L, Stern Paul C

Comaroff and Stern are theorizing the puzzling phenomenon of the growth of nationalism in the aftermath of the Cold War. By admitting the failure of both Marxist and liberal driven social science to explain this persistence, they urge the rethinking of the phenomenon, particularly in respect to differentiation between the concept of nation, ethnicity and race, and its relation to violence in order to understand “the recent renaissance of the politics of cultural identity” (37).

Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict..

Brown, Michael et alii (ed.)

A standard university reader for the issues of relationship between nationalism and ethnic conflict, volume edited by Michael Brown et alia assembled thirteen contributions of reputed authors divided in two central parts: The Sources of Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict and Options for International Action. In the first part contributors are exposing different sets of causes of internal conflicts (Michael Brown) and hypotheses on the relationship between nationalism and war (Stephen Van Evera), and are further applying as the theories on several case studies.

Balkan as a Metaphor. Between Globalization and Fragmentation..

Bjelić, Dušan, Savić, Obrad (ed.)

A major edited volume from contributes with scholarly interest in both contemporary Balkans and contemporary theory, the book deals with the well-entrenched negative image of the Balkans as the European Otherness, further prompted by the wars in the former Yugoslavia. Grouped around three central issues, (1) Orientalism, Balkanism and Occidentalism, (2) Balkan Identity and Nationality, (3) Sexuality, Trauma and Myth, the contributions are reflecting on the nexus between the contemporary theory and the collapse of the social order in the Balkans.

The Balkan Wars 1912-1913..

Trotsky, Leon

This voluminous piece of war correspondence was written by Leo Trocky, at the time the journalist for Kievskaya Mysl from the Balkans. Consequently reedited and republished, it consists of three parts: The first one, On the threshold of war covers the events in the Balkans from 1908 until 1912, described as an unstoppable slide of antagonized bourgeoisies towards the war.

Unfinished Peace. Report on the international commission on the B..

Tindemans, Leo (ed.)

Drawing openly its inspiration from the 1913 Carnegie commission, this book contains a final report of the International Commission for the Balkans (consisted of Leo Tindemans, Lloyd Cutler, Bronislaw Geremek, John Roper, Theo Sommer, Simone Veil and David Anderson), created with the ambition to analyze the causes of the war, as well as to assess the current situation and make policy recommendations for the future. Although the introductory chapter discusses various views on the connection of ethnicity, nationalism and war and explicitly rejects the “ancient hatred” argument, the report is overall inspecting into warfare in the former Yugoslavia as a phenomenon typical for the Balkans, much in the spirit of the first Carnegie commission’s findings.

The War in Eastern Europe; Travels through the Balkans in 1915..

Reed, John

This piece of travel literature by the author who attained global fame with his account of the Russian Revolution (Ten days that shook the world) is a description of his itinerary from April to October 1915 in wartime Serbia, Russia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece. The book is reflecting Reed´s experiences on a journey which begun in Thessalonica, and continued through Niš and Belgrade at the time of the Austro-German offensive on Serbia.

The Other Balkan Wars. A 1913 Carnegie Endowment Inquiry in Retr..

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

A reprint of the 1913 Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars appeared in the shadow of wars in the former Yugoslavia, and the vertical line between the events on the Balkans in the beginning and at the end of the 20th century is strongly emphasized in the introduction of George F.Kennan (The Bakan Crises : 1913 and 1993; to become a target of criticism in Maria Todorova’s Imagining the Balkans).

The Carnegie Report and the Balkans Today..

International Conference on the Balkans

The volume contains contributions and discussions from the conference organized by a Bulgarian non-governmental organization which has also undertaken the first translation ever of the original 1913 Carnegie report (eighty years after its initial appearance). This volume is a corollary to that initiative – an attempt to asses the changing relations and perceptions between the Balkans and the rest of the Europe in the course of the 20th century.

The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War..

Glenny, Misha

The author, BBC correspondent from the Balkans, is presenting an eye-witness account as well as the political analysis of the collapse of the former Yugoslavia. He displayed an influential, if unsystematic description on the development of warfare, based on personal experience and interviews with key protagonists as different as Ratko Mladić and Richard Holbrook.

National ideology under socialism: identity and cultural politics..

Katherine Verdery

Prof. Verdery analyzes how the communist regime in Romania, by means of politics of culture managed to legitimize itself and construct a national-communist identity recognized both domestically and internationally.

Stalinism for all seasons: apolitical history of Romanian communi..

Vladimir Tismaneanu

Prof. Tismăneanu’s book is an excellent survey about the transformations undergone by the Romanian Communist Party (RCP) during its history, before and after coming into power.

Reinventing politics: Eastern Europe from Stalin to Havel..

Vladimir Tismaneanu

The volume re-constructs the history of state socialism in Eastern Europe and analyzes the reasons behind its demise. It follows two parallel directions: one in which is describing the socio-political evolution of these regimes; and a second, which develops an alternative story based upon the genealogy and the author’s exegesis of leading revisionist and dissident Eastern European intellectuals.

The great retreat: the growth and decline of Communism in Russia..

Nicholas S. Timasheff

This book represents the paradigmatic study of the means by which the CPSU managed to integrate the Russian factor in the Soviet polity. Despite the fact that it was first published in 1946, the volume still generates extensive debates and commentaries within the academic community (e.

The ontology of socialism..

Jadwiga Staniszkis

The volume deals with the mechanisms characteristic of socialism (seen as state doctrine) that generate its specific types of social aggregation and its patterns of representation and legitimization. Following this path, the author aims to explain the lack of opposition under communism and the adherence to inclusionary policies pursed by these regimes – ultimately, the lack of loci of resistance within the communist-ruled societies.

The political thought of Joseph Stalin – a study in twentieth-c..

Erik van Ree

The author offers an innovative study of the political thought behind Stalin’s political activity. He accepts Stalin’s fundamental pragmatism, but he refuses to let go easily to the ideological bedrock of his actions.

The legitimation of a revolution: the Yugoslav case..

Bogdan Denis Denitch

Prof. Denitch offers a study of the process by which the comunist takeover and regime managed to establish a legitimate position before Yugoslav society from 1941 onwards through the promotion, with its twists and turns, of an official multinationalism, ultimately legally justified in 1974 Constitution.

Politics, power, and the struggle for democracy in South-East Eur..

Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrott eds.

This volume is based on the premise that the political developments in the region can be analyzed on the basis of a common research agenda – that is, authoritarianism, the struggle for democracy, the legacies of communism, the resurgence of nationalism in the context of the post-communist new identity discourses. All authors emphasize the difficulties of moving beyond communism into democracy, while also keeping a distance from the mythologies of the pre-communist period.

The Affirmative Action Empire..

Terry Martin

Terry Martin book is the most comprehensive study on the Soviet nationalities policies up to date. It is an excellent complementary to Brandenberger’s volume.

Ideologies and national identities: the case of twentieth-century..

John Lampe and Mark Mazower eds.

The intention of the two editors is to present a history of the national entities in the region that takes into account the patterns of change and continuity within a century-wide context of ideological transformation. All contributors deal with their topics in terms of the transfers and legacies from one regime to the other – from pre-communism through communism into post-communism.

Revolutionary breakthroughs and national development: the case of..

Kenneth Jowitt

The book analyzes the first two decades of communism in Romania with its two phases: one of breakthrough and the beginning of the inclusionary policies of the regime. The first is the process by which the Romanian Workers’ Party (the earlier name of the RCP) pursued the political penetration of the state structures and of society alongside with the redefinition of the national community.

Dictatorship as experience: towards a socio-cultural history of t..

Konrad H. Jarausch ed.

This collective volume synthesizes the main debates within German scholarship about the nature of the communist regime in the former GDR. It is based upon a conceptual axis which extremes are the SED rule as being fundamentally illegitimate and the partisan, nostalgic retrospective of the GDR.

Polish Paradoxes..

Stanislaw Gomulka and Antony Polonsky eds.

This edited volume attempts to explain the characteristic position of permanent crisis (political, economic, and cultural) of state socialism in Poland. In a sense one could argue that one of the main stories in this book is that of the impossibility of party-rule to legitimize itself, despite valiant attempts both from W.

The people's state: East German society from Hitler to Honecker..

Mary Fulbrook

Mary Fulbrook presents the history of state socialism in the former GDR from the point of view of the ‘normalization’ of the regime and of its rather successful localization within German society. She writes a social history of communism in GDR that refuses the dichotomies such as state-society or power-oppression.

The making of a nation in the Balkans: historiography of the Bulg..

Roumen Daskalov

The book is important for understanding how “a historical epoch” is shaped in the collective conscience while being simultaneously a battleground for claims for political legitimacy. In this manner, the “Bulgarian Revival” symbolizes both a heterogeneous nation-building process, but also becomes means of instrumentalizing and ‘translating’ various political programs and identity narratives.

The national question in Marxist-Leninist theory and strategy..

Walker Connor

The book analyzes the theoretizations and policies about the nation and nationalities pursued by Marxist-Leninist movements and regimes that are multinational. It starts with a genealogy of Marxist-Leninist conception of the nation, with an emphasis on Lenin’s self-determination theory, which was supposed to diffusive nationalism, hasten class-struggle and bring about “strategic” alliances for purposes of coming into power.

(Re)writing history: historiography in Southeast Europe after soc..

Ulf Brunnbauer ed.

The premise of the volume is that under socialism national history was a battleground for the legitimization of the party-state. Communist regimes developed meta-narratives of the past based upon a synthesis of historical materialism and nationalist/patriotic motifs.

Reinventing Russia: Russian nationalism and the Soviet state, 195..

Yitzhak M. Brudny

The book is a study of the role of “cultural politics” in the evolution of Soviet ideological policies during the post-Stalinist period. The author analyzes the emergence and development of Russian nationalist discourse among intellectuals under communism after 1953 in the USSR, and the manner in which this phenomenon impacted upon Russian post-communist politics and public opinion.

National Bolshevism: Stalinist mass culture and the formation of ..

David Brandenberger

This is a groundbreaking volume that applies Benedict Anderson’s theory of nationalism to the Soviet Union, focusing on print culture and on the patterns of historical-cultural representation under Stalinism. It takes into account the official visions of the body politic, the education system, public display and debates, personal accounts, and the academic production.

“The Struggle for the Soul of the Nation”: Czech Culture and ..

Bradley F. Adams

The book is an extensive account of the public debates and general interactions between politically engaged intellectuals during the period before the comunist takeover. The author attempts to answer the question of how was it possible for the Czechoslovak communists to acquire the national legitimization that allowed them to come to power mostly unchallenged.

"Interfaith Dialogue versus Recent Hatred: Serbian Orthodoxy and ..

Perica, Vjekoslav

In this article Vjekoslav Perica analyses inter-church relationship in Yugoslavia the Second Vatican Council and accounts for the failure of the ecumenical movement initiated by this council. The author examines how communist quasi religious rhetoric of ‘brotherhood and unity’ correlated with the attempts to establish the interfaith dialogue.

"Ekklesiale Struktur und Ekklesiologie in der Serbischen Orthodox..

Bremer, Thomas

This book by a German specialist in Serbian church history and theology is the only comprehensive analysis of the worldviews of the two main twentieth century Serbia theologians: Nikolaj Velimirović and Justin Popović. Nonetheless, it is the introductory part on the Church autonomy of the Serbs in the Habsburg Empire (15-103) that provides most of a historical account in this book.

"Some Aspect of Serbian Religious Development in the Eighteenth c..

Jelavich, Charles

This article discusses an important period of Serbian national development, namely religious developments and church life of Serbs in the Eighteenth century. Jelavich starts with the description of Seoba - the great migration of Serbs from today’s Kosovo and Metohia to the Habsburg territories (Vojvodina) in the late seventeenth century - which opened up a new period of the Serbian political and cultural life.

"Factionalism in Church-State Interaction: The Croatian Catholic ..

Ramet, Pedro

In this article Pedro Ramet, who is considered by many to be among the leading scholars of church history and religious questions in Yugoslavia, discusses in greater detail the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the communist establishment in Croatia in the 1980s. Ramet convincingly argues for the necessity to acknowledge the existence of factions within both entities and supports his argument with a wide range of examples.

"On the Road towards Religious Pluralism? Church and State in Ser..

Ilić, Angela

This article examines various legal and societal aspects of the church-state relationship in Serbia after the fall of Milošević regime. Ilić underlines such issues as the state of religious freedom and tolerance in Serbian society and attempts to locate the Serbian situation within European context.

"Nationalities Papers", Special Issue..

The contributors to this special issue about Muslims in the Balkans make clear that the importance of Islam in the process of national identity formation is of fundamental importance but its exact role has been complex, indeed almost contradictory. The first part of the volume outlines a broad historical narrative of the Balkan Muslim population.

"East European Nationalism, Politics and Religion"..

Sugar, Peter F.

This volume is a collection of papers and articles by Peter F. Sugar from different years untied by the overarching question of the relationship between nationalism, politics, and religion in Eastern Europe since the nineteenth century.

"The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina: Their Historic Development fr..

Pinson, Mark (ed.)

This volume consists of five papers written by leading American specialists in the filed of Yugoslav history (John V. A.

"The Bosnian Muslims and Albanians: Islam and Nationalism"..

Babunal, Aydin

This article examines from a comparative perspective the role of Islam in the Bosnian Muslim and Albanian national movements from the Ottoman period up to the late 1980s. The author analyses the two cases step by step: the Ottoman period, Austro-Hungarian rule for Bosnia-Herzegovina, creation of independent Albania and history of Bosnian Muslims and Albanians in the kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in the Interwar time, and finally post-1945 developments.

"Balkan Idols: Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States"..

Perica, Vjekoslav

This book mainly talks about church-state relationship and politics and ideologies of the institutionalized Yugoslav churches and therefore it belongs to the same pool of studies as the ones by Buchenau, Ramet and Radić. The author attempted to bridge the Interwar period, Socialist Yugoslavia and the conflict of the 1990s.

"Church and State in Yugoslavia since 1945"..

Alexander, Stella

In this book Stella Alexander provides an account of the relationship between socialist state and Orthodox and Catholic churches in Yugoslavia since 1945 up to the late 1960s. This study was pioneering at the time of it publication but today might not seem groundbreaking in its approach to the issue.

"Being Muslim the Bosnian Way: Identity and Community in a Centra..

Bringa, Tone

In her book based on field research in a mixed Catholic-Muslim Bosnian village not far from Sarajevo Bringa presents classical anthropological account of life of a Muslim community. Although the book was published in 1995, the research was made in the late 1980s the author warns the reader that the book does not provide an explanation for the Bosnian war.

"What Went Wrong? Church-State Relationship in Socialist Yugoslav..

Buchenau, Klaus

This article attempts to explain the paradox of the comparatively good position of the churches in Socialist Yugoslavia and their explicit anti-state position. The author analyses the evolution of state policies towards Orthodox and Catholic churches and underlines the differences between the 1960s and the 1980s in this respect.

"Orthodoxie und Katholizismus in Jugoslawien, 1945-1991: ein serb..

Buchenau, Klaus

This recent study by a young German scholar focuses on the destiny, place and role of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches in Yugoslavia during the socialist era. Along the way it addresses issues of interconfessional relations, intrachurch politics and of course church-state relationship.

"Young, Religious, and Radical: The Croat Catholic Youth Organiza..

Prlenda, Sandra

This chapter from a collected volume deals with the issue of Catholic grassroots mobilization in the Interwar and wartime Croatia by the example of organized youth movements. In the center of analysis are two organizations: the Croat Eagle Union (1923-29) and the Crusaders’ Organization (1930-1945).

"The Church and the ‘Serbian Question'", in Nebojša Popov (ed...

Radić, Radmila

This collected volume originally written in Serbian by local intellectuals seeks to systematically explore the roots of the conflict that lead to the break up of Yugoslavia. In her contribution to the volume Radmila Radić raises up a number of important questions: peculiarity of the church-state and church-nation relationships in Eastern Christianity, the Kosovo myth, and the concept of church ‘the saviour of the nation’, etc.

"Religion in a Multinational State: The Case of Yugoslavia" in De..

Radić, Radmila

In this short essay Radmila Radić, who is the leading authority (within Serbia) on religious and church issues in Yugoslavia, provides a concise overview of the relationship between the Yugoslav state and its three main religious institutions: the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church and the Muslim community. In a rather descriptive manner the author points out the main moments of collision between the state and religious institutions throughout the entire period of the existence of Yugoslavia.

"Religion and Nation in Wartime Croatia: Reflections on the Usta�..

Biondich, Mark

This article by the example of Ustaša (Croatian fascist movement) policy of religious conversions in 1941-42 discusses an important issue of the role and place of Catholicism in the Ustaša political regime. In his analysis of the case-study Biondich takes into account long-term development of Croatian nationalism, which, according to the author, did not ascribe to religion great significance prior to the Interwar period.

"Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of..

Ramet, Sabrina P.

Three chapters on Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Islam that are included in the part II have been published at various occasions before, but have been sufficiently changed for this edition. Ramet offers three short essays on three major religious institutions of Yugoslavia, and talks about church-state relationship and the involvement of the clergy into politics.

"Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslavia", in Pedro Ramet (ed.), R..

Ramet, Pedro

This chapter from a collected volume on church-state relationship in Eastern europe briefly describes communist religious policies and the position of religious communities, i.e.

"Ourselves and Others. The Development of a Greek Macedonian Cult..

Peter Mackridge and Eleni Yannakakis (eds.)

The collective volume contains papers delivered in 1995 in Oxford at a conference organized by Peter Mackridge. The creating of an ‘indigenous literary tradition’, i.

"Ethnic Rivalry and the Quest for Macedonia, 1870-1913"..

Aarbakke, Vemund

Aarbakke suggests the most comprehensive overview of the ethnic rivalries in Ottoman Macedonia between the foundation of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870) and the end of the Balkan wars. The work is quite valuable with the fact that the author masters equally Greek, Turkish and the Balkan Slavic languages, and for that reason had access to various literatures on the topic.

"IMRO+100=FYROM? The Politics of Macedonian Historiography". In T..

Troebst, Stefan

The article is divided into two major parts the first of which deals with ‘the construction of tradition through the interpretation of history’. Troebst focuses on the historical narratives and the political usages of certain historical events and personalities in Macedonia and in Bulgaria as well as on the politico-historiographic polemics between the two countries.

"Die bulgarisch-jugoslawische Kontroverse um Makedonien 1967-1982..

Troebst, Stefan

An irreplaceable guide in the ‘politico-historiographic nexus’ in Bulgaria and in Yugoslav Macedonia during the communism written by an incontestable connoisseur not only of the history of the ‘Macedonian question’ but also of the contemporary evolution of Macedonian and Bulgarian political and/or cultural context. Troebst suggests a very detailed presentation of the controversies between Bulgarian and Yugoslav politicians and scientists concerning the history of Macedonia, the Macedonian Slavic language and the Macedonian national minority in Bulgaria that began already in 1958 but ‘exploded’ fully by the late 1960s.

"History, Myths and the Nation in the Republic of Macedonia". In ..

Brunnbauer, Ulf

The Austrian historian analyses the development of modern Macedonian historiography in the context of Macedonian ‘nation building’ after 1944 as well as in nowadays’ post-Yugoslav conditions. He presents firstly the political and institutional context of historiography and highlights the structure, tasks and functions of the Institute for National History in Skopje.

"A Rising to Count On: Ilinden Between Politics and History in Po..

Brown, Keith

Brown highlights certain symbolic stakes of the representation of the past in the course of the Republic of Macedonia’s transition to sovereignty. At the first place, he discusses the institutional framework of Macedonian historiography – more concretely, the Institute for national history in Skopje.

"Sprach- und Geschichtsrevision in Makedonien. Zur Dekonstruktion..

Voss, Christian

The article sheds light on the development of Macedonian philology and historiography during and after the Yugoslav rule but also on number of sociolinguistic and identity phenomena characterizing the cultural context of the Republic of Macedonia. The central theme are the post-Yugoslav attempts for revision of the way the Macedonian language was standardized after 1944 and the criticism regarding the former ‘Belgradocentric’ cultural élite.

"Affections of a Greek Hero: Pavlos Melas and Heroic Representati..

Karakasidou, Anastasia

An intriguing anthropological inquiry of the discrepancies between national historiographic master narratives and oral histories. Through a quasi criminologist investigation of the circumstances around the death of Pavlos Melas – the most charismatic and celebrated Greek ‘Macedonian fighter’ (makedonomahos) – Karakasidou challenges the selectivity of national history that makes possible the canonization of national heroes.

"Between the Necessity and the Impossibility of a ‘National His..

Jordanovski, Nikola

In this short essay, Jordanovski, a non-mainstream Macedonian historian, questions certain uncritical assumptions of the Macedonian and of the other Balkan historiographies. He challenges the long historical continuity claimed by the academia of the former Yugoslav republic and tries to understand the Macedonian nation as a specific modern construct.

"Macedonianism and Macedonian Nationalism on the Left". In Nation..

Rossos, Andrew

In this article, Rossos tries to present and explain a particular aspect of modern Macedonian nationalism – namely, its incontestable relationship to the communist movement in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Greece as well as to the international communist ‘headquarters’ in Moscow. As long as this connection is overemphasized by analysts denouncing the ‘Macedonianism’ as a communist-sponsored identity ‘mutation’, Rossos is extremely eager to show that, in the Interwar period, the Macedonian nationalism had already its long history and that the communist movement was just another one of its vehicles.

"Incompatible Allies: Greek Communism and Macedonian Nationalism ..

Rossos, Andrew

Rossos, a Canadian historian of Macedonian origin, offers an extensive research on the Macedonian question during the Greek Civil war and, especially, on the relationship between the Greek communist party leadership and the Slav Macedonian activists from the National liberation front (NOF). His main conclusion is reflected by the very title of the article: it is a question of different agendas, each one based on its own nationalistic motives (respectively, Greek and Macedonian), which however found ‘common language’ on the ground of political expediency.

"Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian Question"..

Palmer, Stephen and Robert King

A ‘classical’ study of the political usages of Macedonian national identity by the Yugoslav communist leadership. Palmer and King describe thoroughly the development of the CPY’s official line concerning the identity of Macedonia’s Slavic population during the Interwar period and throughout the Second World war.

"Nationalism and Communism in Macedonia"..

Kofos, Evangelos

Maybe the oldest but still usable research on the Balkan communists’ policies concerning the solution of the ‘Macedonian question’. The outstanding Greek national historian suggests an overview of the national movements in Ottoman Macedonia as well as in the Interwar Macedonias but his accent is laid on the ways in which the Bulgarian, the Yugoslav and the Greek communist parties fostered the ‘creation’ of a Macedonian state and nation.

"Faut-il que les langues aient un nom? Le cas du macédonien". In..

Sériot, Patrick

The author, linguist from the University of Lausanne, proposes a critical analysis of traditional and contemporary claims (Bulgarian, Serbian, Greek and ‘Macedonianist’) concerning the ‘national belonging’ of the Macedonian Slavic vernacular language. His main point is that, through the label of the national name, the national ideology reifies and naturalizes the language.

"The Modern Macedonian Standard Language and Its Relation to Mode..

Friedman, Victor

The prominent linguist from the Chicago University offers an overview of the attempts for literary usage of Macedonian Slavic vernacular since the beginning of the 19th century and insists on their relevance for the development of modern Macedonian national identity. Friedman considers that there are four major periods of evolution of Macedonian language and nationalism (1794-c.

"Who Are the Macedonians?"..

Poulton, Hugh

Ambitious title behind which the reader would find number of valuable data. The profession of the author – human rights activist – already indicates the most reliable part of the book: the situation of Macedonian minorities in Albania, Bulgaria and Greece (chapter eight) and of national minorities in the Republic of Macedonia itself (chapter seven).

"Macedonia. The Politics of Identity and Difference"..

Cowan, Jane (ed.)

Contrary to the expectations that might be generated by the title, in general, the collective volume does not present the identity politics in the contemporary post-Yugoslav Macedonia. Most of the articles deal with local identity issues in Greek Macedonia and present the outcome of an anthropological fieldwork.

"The Macedonian Conflict. Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational W..

Danforth, Loring

Danforth analyzes the conflict between Greeks and Macedonians concerning the ‘right’ over the Macedonian identity and the history of Macedonia. He suggests a comprehensive anthropological study of the Macedonian diasporic nationalism, especially in Australia and Canada, and of its relationship to the development of minority claims in contemporary Greek Macedonia.

"The Past in Question. Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of ..

Brown, Keith

Undoubtedly the most competent in history anthropological monograph on former Yugoslav Macedonia focusing on the local memories and experience of ethnicity and of national identity in the small town of Kruševo – center of the Ilinden uprising in 1903 and one of the most important lieux de mémoire of the modern Macedonian nationalism. Contrary to the perspective analyzing the development of Macedonian national identity as a process directed exclusively ‘from above’, in his ‘ethnography of history’, Brown tries to understand the same identity as a result of interaction of individuals, institutions, memories and ideologies.

"Yugoslav Macedonia, 1943-1953: Building the Party, the State and..

Troebst, Stefan

Troebst, one of the most important experts in modern Macedonian history and historiography, analyzes the process of ‘making’ of a Macedonian nation as a combination of autochthonous claims ‘from below’ and of a state nation building ‘from above’. In this manner, he suggests a somewhat more nuanced version of the ‘top-down’ perspective, which acknowledges the existence of various political agendas and identity developments that made possible the success of the Macedonian national construction after 1944.

"The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation"..

Kofos, Evangelos

The mainstream Greek historian, specialist in history of Macedonia, tries to explain the modern Macedonian nation as a result of an identity ‘mutation’ operated after 1944 by the Yugoslav communist state. According to Kofos, Tito’s leadership promoted the concept of ethnic Macedonians in order to assimilate, under this title, various Slavic (Bulgarians, Serbs, Moslem Slavs) and non-Slavic (Vlachs and Greeks) ethnic groups.

"Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek..

Karakasidou, Anastasia

The well-known anthropologist explores the complex process, which led to the transformation of the ‘multiethnic’ village of Gjuvezna, situated in Eastern Greek Macedonia, into today’s Greek town of Assiros. Assuming that ethnicity is ‘a fluid, historically rooted construct … subject to change’, Karakasidou analyzes the local socio-economic context around the turn of the 20th century and the nationalist competition supported by the Churches and played by armed bands.

"Nationality in the Balkans: the Case of the Macedonians". In Bal..

Yasamee, Feroze

The author, historian of the Ottoman Empire, emphasizes certain political upheavals that, since the 1870s, have played a decisive part in the shaping of the Macedonian Slavs’ sense of nationality. He considers that the bulk of the local Slavic intelligentsia espoused a Bulgarian national identity already during the so-called ‘Revival’ period, previous to the Russo-Ottoman war of 1877-1878, and that this identity was challenged by four major events: the decision of the Great Powers to keep Macedonia under Ottoman authority taken during the Berlin Congress (1878), the disaster of the Ilinden uprising (1903), the division of the region after the Balkan wars (1912-1913) and the period of the Second World war.

"Social Cleavages and National ‘Awakening’ in Ottoman Macedon..

Gounaris, Basil

Written by one of the prominent contemporary Greek specialists in the history of the Macedonian ‘questions’, the article tries to reframe the study of ‘ethnic’ mobilizations in the turn-of-the-century Ottoman Macedonia. Gounaris challenges a part of the existing literature with his assertion that the different Christian camps in the region ‘were not indeed ethnic groups’ and that one may speak rather of the existence of ‘parties with national affiliations’.

"Macedonian Identity: An Overview of the Major Claims". In The Ne..

Drezov, Kyril

In this short article, the expert in Southeast European politics suggests an insightful perspective on Macedonian ‘nation building’. Contrary to the simplistic interpretations of modern Macedonian national identity as a communist/Tito’s invention (the Greek point of view) or as a Serbian fabrication (the Bulgarian one), he insists that Greeks, Bulgarians and Serbs have equally contributed to its formation.

"The Macedonians in the Ottoman Empire, 1878-1912" in The Formati..

Adanır, Fikret

Adanır challenges the famous three-phase model of national mobilization suggested by Miroslav Hroch and tries to show why it should be ‘applied with caution when studying national history in the Ottoman Balkans’ and, in particular, in Macedonia. He exposes firstly the main characteristics of social and economic context within the latter, the millet system, the ideology of Ottomanism, the influence of the Great Powers, of the neighbor states etc.

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