BIBLIOGRAPHY
Title The Other Balkan Wars. A 1913 Carnegie Endowment Inquiry in Retrospect with a New Introduction and reflections on the Present Conflict by George F.Kennan
Author Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Publisher Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Annotation A reprint of the 1913 Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars appeared in the shadow of wars in the former Yugoslavia, and the vertical line between the events on the Balkans in the beginning and at the end of the 20th century is strongly emphasized in the introduction of George F.Kennan (The Bakan Crises : 1913 and 1993; to become a target of criticism in Maria Todorova’s Imagining the Balkans). The original report was conducted by an independent commission, sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment, consisted of the well-reputed individuals from France, Britain, Russia, Austria-Hungary, United States and Germany. It consists out of inquiry into the origins of the two Balkan wars (21-70), investigation into the atrocities committed over noncombatant population in the course of war (71-109), the relationship between war and policy of nationalities (148-209), the relationship between the war and international law (208-234) and the economical, moral an social consequences of the war (209-265). The conclusions of the commission in regards to the relationship between the war and ethnicity were pointing out that the policies of extermination, emigration and assimilation undertaken in the course of the war were a part of the state building venture. They were noting “the common feature which unites the Balkan nations…that the war is waged not only by the armies but the nations themselves” (148). The publication of the report has drawn attention to the violent nature of the warfare in the Balkans, but was somewhat overshadowed by the eruption of the First World War, and was afterwards frequently criticized as an example of Western cultural imperialism, but it still remains the fullest account on the atrocities committed in the course of the Balkan wars.
Author of Annotation Vladimir Petrović
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