||"The Macedonians in the Ottoman Empire, 1878-1912" in The Formation of National Élites: Comparative Studies on Governments and Non-Dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940, edited by Andreas Kappeler, Fikret Adanır, Alan O’Day, 161-191.
||Adanır challenges the famous three-phase model of national mobilization suggested by Miroslav Hroch and tries to show why it should be ‘applied with caution when studying national history in the Ottoman Balkans’ and, in particular, in Macedonia. He exposes firstly the main characteristics of social and economic context within the latter, the millet system, the ideology of Ottomanism, the influence of the Great Powers, of the neighbor states etc. Against this background, Adanır presents the history of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, the Ilinden uprising of 1903 as well as the impact of the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 and of the Balkan wars (1912-1913). Yet, in spite of his expertise in all these questions, Adanır offers certain perplexing formulations when he tries to analyze the formation of a ‘national élite’. It is, for instance, by no means clear in what sense the IMRO represented a Macedonian national movement: in fact, most of the article’s contents does not speak in favor of such a thesis. It is likewise not clear what the term ‘macedonianism’ (p. 170) means to Adanır or what is the relationship between the activity of Macedonian nationalists like Krste Misirkov and the Macedonian revolutionaries (p. 180). The author’s idea that the ‘creation of a Macedonian literary language was the chief concern’ of the Loza review (1892) is uncritically borrowed from the contemporary Macedonian historiography.